We continue the Instructional Design 101 series with the next 3 phases of ADDIE – Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
In the Development phase, we begin to put together our instructional strategy: Based on our determined objectives, how are we going to deliver the required information to our learners? This is when we create our deliverables. What instructional materials will we need to accomplish our task(s)? What technology can/should we include in the strategy? The Development Phase is the “How” and the “What” of the process.
Academic Technology can help you identify tools and resources available that can be used to build your deliverables – whether that is using ECLearn or Prezi or Camtasia to deliver content, a Qualtrics survey or clickers to survey students, or choosing a collaborative tool to best facilitate group projects.
Now that we’ve got all of our instructional materials ready to go, it’s time to deliver the course to our audience – the Implementation phase. We schedule class times and deliver the needed information. Is it an online or blended course? Is my ECLearn course shell published? Remember, if you are delivering this course for the first time or using new instructional materials and technologies, learner problems or unforeseen instructional challenges may arise. It is important to remember that this stage is part of a process and not simply the end of the design and development project. Which leads us to E.
During the Evaluation phase, we accomplish two things: first, we evaluate the learners to make sure they’ve met the lesson or course objectives; second, we evaluate the lesson or course. Was it successful? If yes, why? If not, what needs to be changed to make it successful going forward? Based on the feedback, revisions in the design phase may need to be made.
But evaluation is not the final or next or end phase of ADDIE. Evaluation is all-encompassing. ADDIE is not a linear model. If I were to diagram it, it would look more like this:
The Evaluation process is probably the most difficult to design and implement, but one of the most important elements. While it’s easy to figure out if students “liked” the lesson or course, it’s much more difficult to determine exactly what they learned from it and if they were able to actually put their new knowledge/skills to work in any meaningful way. Two forms of evaluation – formative and summative – are two approaches that go hand in hand to evaluate the whole process of instruction.
- Formative evaluation supports the design and development phases of the instructional design process. It takes place while you are still forming the instructional strategies and materials. What looks great on paper might not necessarily work well in the actual teaching environment. For example, I might have developed a great learning activity that requires students to work in groups of three. The learning activity is supposed to take five minutes. When I ‘pilot’ the activity, it turns out that it actually takes the students closer to fifteen minutes to complete the activity. Knowing this, I can now adjust my timetable for the remainder of the class time.
- Summative evaluation provides information on the lesson or course’s ability to do what it was designed to do. It takes place at the end of the lesson or course. Did the learners learn what they were supposed to learn at the conclusion of the lesson or course? It lets the learner know “how they did,” but also, it helps you know whether the lesson or course goals and objectives were met. Commonly used summative evaluation tools are course grades, ePortfolios, and the course evaluation.
Now that we have reviewed the ADDIE process, stay tuned for the fourth and final part of ID 101 as we discuss ways you can practically use this process in your classroom.